Titanium Alloy Forging

Titanium and its alloys are extensively employed in various fields due to its numerous benefits, including their low density, high specific strength, and exceptional resistance to corrosion. Researchers have studied this material’s forging process extensively in order to better employ it.

The process of titanium forging

Forging is the process of using metal plasticity to form a blank under the influence of tools or pressure into a specific shape and organizational qualities of plastic formation. Forging manufacturing has the advantage of not only obtaining the shape of mechanical parts, but also improving the internal organization of materials and the mechanical qualities of mechanical parts.

1. Free Forging

Generally, free forging is done between two flats or dies without a die cavity. The tool used in free forging has simple shape, high flexibility, short manufacturing cycle and low cost. However, it has a high labor intensity, is difficult to operate, has low productivity, low forging quality, and a large processing allowance. Therefore, it is only appropriate when there are few parts and no special requirements for the parts’ performance.

2. Open Die Forging

The blank deforms between two modules with engraved cavities, the forging is confined to the cavity, and excess metal flows out of the narrow gap between the two molds, forming a rough edge around the forging. Under the resistance of the die and the rough edges around it, the metal is forced into the shape of the die cavity.

3. Closed-Die Forging

In the process of closed-die forging, no transverse burr perpendicular to the direction of die movement is formed. The cavity of the closed forging die serves two purposes: one is for forming the blank and the other is for guiding.

4.  No-Draft Forging

There are two types of extrusion die forging: forward extrusion die forging and reverse extrusion die forging. Extrusion die forging can create a wide range of hollow and solid pieces, as well as forgings with high geometric accuracy and dense internal organization.

5. Multi-Die Forging

It is accomplished using a multi-die forging machine. There are two horizontal plungers in addition to the vertical punching injection plug, and its ejector can also be used to punch holes, with a higher pressure than a standard hydraulic press ejector. In multi-die forging, the slider acts on the workpiece in both vertical and horizontal directions, and one or more punches are used to force metal outward from the center of the die cavity to fill the die cavity. On the parting line of the barrel components, there is no raw edge of the unique forging.

6. Parting Die Forging

In order to forge large monolithic forgings on the existing hydraulic pressure, fractional die forging, plate die forging and other partial die forging methods can be adopted. The characteristic of the partial die forging method is to process the forgings step by step, one component at a time, , allowing the required equipment tonnage to be kept to a minimum. In general, this technology can be utilized to treat massive forgings in a medium hydraulic press.

 7. Isothermal Die Forging

Before forging, the mold is heated to the forging temperature of the blank, and the temperature of the mold and the blank is consistent during the whole forging process, so that a large deformation can be obtained under the action of a small deformation force. Isothermal die forging and isothermal superplastic die forging are very similar, the difference is that before the latter die forging, the blank needs to be superplastic treatment, so that it has equiaxial grain.

The titanium alloy forging process is widely used in the aviation and aerospace manufacturing industries (isothermal forging process has been used to produce engine parts and aircraft structural parts), and it is also becoming increasingly popular in industrial sectors such as automobiles, electric power and ships.

Currently, the cost of titanium materials is very high, and many civilian fields have not fully recognized the charm of titanium alloys. With the continuous progress of science, the preparation of titanium and titanium alloy product technology will be more and more simple, and processing costs will decrease steadily. Additionally, the allure of titanium and titanium alloy products will be emphasized in an increasing number of industries.

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